Tuesday, January 14, 2014



DECISION MAKINGDecision making is the process of selecting alternative actions to achieve specific goals or objectives . Decision-making is done by a systematic approach to the problem through a process of data collection and information coupled with factors - factors to be considered in decision making .Phase - phase of Decision MakingAccording to Herbert A. Simon ( Kadarsah , 2002:15-16 ) , phase - phase to be followed in the decision making process as follows :1 . Stage Understanding ( Intelligence Phace )This stage is the process of tracing and detection of the scope of the problems and the process of recognition problems . Data input is obtained , processed and tested in order to identify the problem .2 . Stage Design ( Design Phace )This stage is the process of development and the search for alternative actions / solutions that can be taken . Is a simplified representation of real events , so that the necessary validation and Verification process to determine the accuracy of the model in researching the problem.3 . Stage Selection ( Choice Phace )This stage, the selection of the alternative solutions diantaraberbagai raised at the planning stage in order to determine / by observing the criteria - criteria based on the objectives to be achieved .4 . Implementation Phase ( Implementation Phace )This stage, the application of the system design has been made in the implementation phase of perancanagan and alternative actions that have been on the stage of the election .type decisionDecisions - decisions made are essentially grouped into two types , among others ( Herbert A. Simon ) :1 . Programmed decisionThis decision is repetitive and routine , so that a definite procedure has been created to handle so that the decision does not need to be treated de novo ( as new ) each time this has happened .2 . Decision Not FixedThis decision is new , unstructured and rarely consistent . There is no reliable method to deal with this problem because there is no previous or precisely because of the nature and structure of the invisible or complicated , or because it is so important that it requires very special treatment .DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMDecision Support System is an interactive system which supports the decision of the decision-making process through the alternative - an alternative that is obtained from the processing of data , information and design models .Understanding Decision Support SystemsAccording to Keen and Scott Morton :" Decision Support System is the combination of sources - sources of intelligence with the ability of individual components to improve the quality of decisions . Decision Support System is also a computer -based information systems for management decision-making that tackle the problem - the problem of semi- structural "With the above understanding can be explained that the decision support system is not a decision-making tool , but rather a system that helps decision-makers to equip them with the information from the data that has been processed with the relevant and necessary to make a decision about a problem more quickly and accurately . So the system is not intended to replace the decision -making process .Characteristics of Decision Support SystemsFrom the definition of the Decision Support System can be determined characteristics , among others :1 . Support the decision-making process , focused on management by perception2 . The existence of human interface / machine where the human (user ) remained in control of decision making process3 . Support decision-making to address the problem of structured , semi- structured and structure4 . Have the capacity for dialogue to obtain information in accordance with the requirements5 . Having subsystems - subsystems are integrated such that it can function as a unitary item6 . Requires a comprehensive data structure that can serve the needs of all levels of management information
Components of Decision Support Systems AuthorsA Decision Support System ( DSS ) has three major subsystems which determine the technical capabilities of decision support systems , among others :1 . Database Management Subsystem2 . Model Base Management Subsystem3 . Dialog subsystem
Database Management SubsystemData Subsystem is part menyelediakan the data - the data required by the Base Management Subsystem ( DBMS ) . DBMS itself is susbsistem data organized in a database . Data - data that is in a Decision Support System can come from the environment . Top level management decisions often have to utilize the data and information sourced from outside the company .
Subsystem capabilities necessary data in a Decision Support System , among others :a. Being able to combine sources - sources of relevant data through the data extraction processb . Being able to add and remove quickly and easilyc . Capable of handling personal data and non- official , so the user can experiment with various alternative decisionsd . Capable of processing data that varies with extensive data management functionalityModel Management SubsystemSubsystem models in the Decision Support System enables decision makers to analyze as a whole by developing and comparing alternative solutions . Integration models - models in a Management Information System which is based on the integration of the data - the data from the field into a Decision Support System .
The ability of the model subsystem in Decision Support Systems , among others :1 . Able to create a model - the new model quickly and easily2 . Capable of cataloging and managing the model to support all levels of users3 . Being able to connect the model - the model with the database through an appropriate relationship4 . Able to manage the base model with management functions analogous to a database managementDialog subsystemDialogue subsystem is part of a Decision Support System that is built to meet the needs of representation and control mechanisms during the process of analysis in the Decision Support Systems group should be determined from the ability to interact with the user system installed . User terminals and systems software is a component - component involved in the dialogue that embodies susbsistem anatara communication with the user of the system . Components dialog displays the system output to the user and receive input from the user to the Decision Support System . The dialog is divided into three subsystems , among others :1 . Language Action ( The Action Language)Is action - action that the user performed in an attempt toestablish communication with the system . Actions taken by the user to operate and control the system depends on the design of the existing system .2 . Display Language ( The Display or Presentation Langauage )Output is dihasilakn by a Decision Support System in the form of the display - the display will allow a user to determine system output to input - input that has been done .3 . Language Knowledge ( Knowledge Base Language)Covers must possess knowledge about the user and the decision about the use of the procedure Decision Support System for the system to be used effectively . Users' understanding of the problems faced performed outside the system , before the user uses the system to make decisions .Level of Technology In Decision Support SystemsIn Decision Support System there are three decision levels of hardware and software . Each - each level by level based on differences in the level of technical ability , the environment and the task at hand . The three levels are :a. Decision Support Systems ( DSS )b . Generating Decision Support System ( DSS Generatorr )c . Equipment Decision Support Systems ( DSS Tools )

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