Tuesday, January 14, 2014

Basic Concepts of Decision Making

Basic Concepts of Decision Making

 
Experts give a decision in accordance with the definition of viewpoint and background thoughts . According to James A.F. Stoner , the decision is the selection among alternatives . This definition contains three terms , namely : ( 1 ) there is a choice on the basis of logic or reasoning , (2 ) there are several alternatives to choose one of the best , and ( 3 ) there are goals to be achieved and the decision was getting closer to that goal . Understanding other decisions raised by Prajudi Atmosudirjo that is a termination decision rather than the process of thinking about a problem with settled on an alternative .From the definition of the decision may be obtained understanding that the decision is a problem-solving as a legal situation that is done through the selection of one alternative from several alternatives .Having understood the sense -making , subsequently cited expert opinion regarding the definition of production or - which is often used - decision making . According to George R. Terry decision is the selection of alternative behavior ( behavior ) of two or more specific alternatives. Then , according to Sondra P. Siagian decision making is a systematic approach to the essence of what the alternative and take action according to the calculations is the fastest action . Furthermore , according to James A. F. Stoner is the decision-making process used to select an action as a way of solving the problem .Based on the definition above it can be concluded that decision making is a process of selecting the best alternative from systematically several alternatives for follow-up ( used ) as a way of solving the problem .Decision-making as a continuation of the way of solving the problem has a function as the base or the beginning of all human activities are conscious and purposeful individually and in groups both institutionally and organisationally . In addition , the decision-making function is something that is futuristic , that is concerned with the future , the future , where the effect or impact on long enough.Associated with these functions , the purpose of decision-making can be distinguished : ( 1 ) the singular purpose . The purpose of a single decision making occurs when the resulting decision concerns only one problem , meaning that once it was decided , has nothing to do with the other problems and ( 2 ) the purpose of which is twofold . The purpose of decision making double occurs when the resulting decision pertaining to more than one issue , meaning that the decision taken at the same time solve the two ( or more ) problems that are contradictory or that are not contradictory .So that decision making can be more focused , it is necessary to know the elements or components of decision making . The element of decision-making that is : ( 1 ) the purpose of decision making , (2 ) identification of decision alternatives to solve the problem , (3 ) the calculation of the factors that can not be known in advance or beyond the reach of human beings , and ( 4 ) facilities and equipment to evaluate or measure the outcome of a decision .Meanwhile , George R. Terry said 5 basic ( base ) in decision-making , namely : ( 1 ) intuition , (2 ) experience , (3 ) the facts , (4 ) authority , and ( 5 ) rational .1 . Intuition .Decision making decisions based on intuition is that by its nature a subjective feeling . In making this decision based on intuition , although the time spent to make decisions relatively short , but the resulting decisions are often relatively less well because they often ignore the basics of other considerations .2 . Experience .Decision-making based on experience has benefits for practical knowledge , because the experience of a person , it can estimate the state of things, to take into account the trade-offs and the merits of the decision that will be generated .3 . Authority .Decision making is usually conducted by the authority by the leadership to subordinates , or by a person of higher social status to the lower position . Results can last decision in a long period of time and has authenticity ( authentic ) , but can pose a routine nature , to associate with dictatorial practices and often pass the problem that should be solved so as to cause haziness4 . Facts .Decision making based on empirical data and facts can provide a healthy decision , solid and good . With fact , the level of confidence in the decision makers can be higher , so that people can accept the decision made willingly and gracefully .5 . Rational .In decision-making based on the ratio , the resulting decision is objective , logical , transparent and consistent to maximize results or values ​​within certain constraints , so it can be said to be closer to the truth , or in accordance with what is desired . Rational decision-making is fully applicable under ideal circumstances . On the basis of rational decision-making are some of the following :• Clarity of the problem : there is no doubt and ambiguity problems .• Orientation objectives : understanding the unity of purpose to be achieved .• Knowledge alternative : all alternatives and consequences are known kind .• Preferences are clear : the alternative could be sorted according to the criteria .• Maximum results : the selection of the best alternative based on the maximum economic yield .sources :Modifications and excerpted from :Education Personnel Directorate . Directorate General of Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel . Ministry of National Education . 200 . Change and Development of Secondary Schools as an Effective Learning Organization ; Matter Competency Development Training Prospective Principal / Headmaster

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